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At this time, notes Thomas Keith Meier, "the practice of business and the concerns of literature in England had begun to intersect at an increasing rate. With the growing importance of ithacca, increasing numbers of literary figures inevitably came into closer contact with it. Born inthe son of a Puritan candlemaker and educated at a Puritan technical academy, Defoe became in turn a successful cloth merchant and a Mature prostitute in tahsis brick and tile whofes, once employing over a hundred workers Phlne a factory of his own design.

But political activism and restless itgaca twice seduced him from his whres and bankrupted him. Disgraced, imprisoned, and hounded by creditors, Defoe turned to writing to pay off a collective debt of 17, Not surprisingly, he chose as the chief subject of his tracts and novels the nujbers economic ehores. When he died inhis obituary boasted that this "great natural Genius understood well the Trade and Interest of his country. But although much ink has been spilled about the worth and meaning of his major novels, little has been written about the over business works he produced between andincluding: While Defoe's professional writing shaped his creative writing, his gifts as a Phone numbers of whores ithaca and a journalist—his plain, demotic style; his knack for concise narrative and analytical summary; his Phone numbers of whores ithaca to create convincing personas through textual documentation—shaped his professional writing, such as An Essay Upon Projectsa Phone numbers of whores ithaca of proposals, and The Complete English Tradesmanthe first English business manual.

These texts bookend a remarkable career in which business and creative writing form a single didactic Phone numbers of whores ithaca o work on the fiction of finance. Naturally, his impact on English prose was profound. Pioneering journalists and editors of The Tatler and The Spectatorthe most influential periodicals of Queen Anne's reign. Both if were politicians Addison numners undersecretary of state, Steele an MPbut they were also pundits and arbiters of Phone numbers of whores ithaca. Acting as unofficial ministers of culture, they reformed polite society and made capitalism respectable. The Tatler appeared three times a week under the pseudonym of Isaac Bickerstaff.

Initially, the newspaper reported on London's political, social, and cultural news, but soon investigated English manners Phone numbers of whores ithaca society, establishing Phone numbers of whores ithaca of Phone numbers of whores ithaca behaviour and genteel conduct, and proposing standards of good taste for an increasingly mercantile culture. At first Steele was the primary iithaca, but upon Addison's return from a government post in Ireland and the subsequent fall of the Whig regime, Addison devoted whorees almost entirely to the newspaper and became its guiding genius. Thanks to him, The Tatler sold 3, copies daily. Its success launched The Spectator, which appeared six days a week and pledged "to bring learning out of closets and libraries, schools and colleges, to dwell in clubs and assemblies, at tea-tables, and in coffee-houses.

But for propaganda purposes, they also produced fictional sketches in which Sir Andrew Freeport, the progressive merchant adventurer, bested Sir Roger De Coverly, the lovable but ineffectual Tory ithava. Their work, therefore, charts the decline uthaca the rural aristocracy and the rise of the urban professional middle class. Iyhaca best prose satirist of the Augustan Age. With the exception of Kafka and PPhone, no other writer better understood the impact of institutional language and professional discourse on society. His education and training explain this insight. Born in Dublin to Anglo-Irish parents, he was educated at Trinity College, where he learned to parody the jargon of medicine, law, and theology.

When he became Sir William Temple's personal secretary, he mastered various forms of professional writing. As a political journalist, he championed Irish economic rights in such pamphlets as A Proposal for Universal Use of Irish Manufacture and The Drapier's Letterswhich protested England's imposition of inferior but privately-minted copper coinage. Swift was possibly the club's most conservative member. A stern Anglican churchman, Swift disliked tinkers, geeks, and touts and resisted the siren call of progress.

However, he lived in a time when much of what passed for science was hocus pocus. His indignation was justified. Swift perceived long before most that science was ethically and morally neutral and could be used for evil as easily as good. Swift refused to sacrifice concrete ethics to scientific abstraction. Needless to say, subsequent events proved him right. The greatest poet of his age, Pope—a hunchbacked, crippled dwarf—suffered a triple disadvantage. As a Roman Catholic second-class citizen, he was barred from formal education, forbidden to inherit property, and denied formal patronage. If he wanted to break into London's literary circle, he would have to fend for himself.

Fascinated by Homer since boyhood. Pope in announced plans to publish a translation of the Iliad. The work would be available by subscription, with one volume appearing annually over the course of six years. Pope secured a revolutionary deal with the publisher Bernard Lintot, which brought him two hundred guineas a volume. The translation duly appeared between and Readers were impressed with the book's packaging as well as its content, for Pope had supervised the etchnings, selected the fonts, and resized the editions for easy storage. The commercial success of the Illiad made Pope the first English poet to live off the sales of his work, "indebted to no prince or peer alive," as he put it.

Encouraged by this coup, Pope translated the Odyssey; but this time, poor health compelled him to enlist the help of others. He attempted to conceal the extent of this collaboration but the secret leaked out and damaged his reputation, if not to his purse. Despite heavy tax penatlies, the remaining profits allowed Pope to move to a villa at Twickenham, where he created a famous grotto and gardens. Despite unprecedented financial success, Pope mistrusted the marketplace but remained as sensitive as a seismograph to the rumblings of the economy. The Epistle to Bathurstperhaps the greatest poem ever written about money, comments on the institution of paper currency and the increasing acquisitiveness of English society, while the final version of the Dunciad attacks the abuses of commercial publishing.

Penname of Francois Marie Arouet. Although not an original thinker, he produced hundreds of sparkling and impudent articles, pamphlets, and pocket-sized books, such as the Portable Philosophical Dictionary in which he defended and promoted new ideas and developments in the humanities and sciences against the encroachment of Church and State. His ability to analyze audiences, second-guess editors, exploit markets, and subvert censorship continues to inspire writers. More than a chameleon-like stylist and a shrewd entrepreneur of ideas, Voltaire also was a passionate champion of human rights.

His early training as a notary explains his firm grasp of law and legistlation, and his scholarly journalism exploits the knowledge and methodology of different academic disciplines to attack injustice and defend the oppressed. Commerce, he believed, would exorcise these demons. Like his contemporary Montesquieu, he promoted the values of the marketplace and saw trade as the path to peace and tolerance. His products are the earliest example of activist marketing. Voltaire's trademark meant freedom. The archetypical American businessman, Franklin was the youngest son of a poor chandler, who taught himself to read and write by studying Daniel Defoe's Essays Upon Projects and disassembling back issues of The Specator.

He made his fortune, however, operating paper mills and printing paper money for the American Colonies. Retiring at forty, he devoted the rest of his life to science, politics, and diplomacy. He pioneered the study of electricity, invented the Franklin stove and the lightning rod, attended the Continental Congree and contributed to the Declaration of Independence, and served as America's ambassador to France. His Autobiography is both a promotional memoir and a portfolio of professional documents. Franklin's impact on American prose was as great as Daniel Defoe's on English letters, but the two men differed in values and approach. Both business writer cultivated a shrewd and pragmatic style, but Defoe's was better suited for a cynical, cosmopolitan city that was rich in resources and opportunities.

Doing well by doing good, he is perhaps the most beloved of the Founding Fathers. His face adorns the U. From struggling Grub Street journalist to moralist and lexicographer to "the Great Cham of Literature," Samuel Johnson epitomizes the career of the professional writer in late 18th-century London. A genius turned hack, he cast a cold eye on his calling: Forever in debt, he wrote for and about the new market economy. His semi-weeklies, The Rambler and The Idlerdiscuss advertising, proposal writing, debt management, and mass consumption. Rasselaswritten in a single week, cashed in on a fad for Arabian tales, appeased Johnson's creditors, and paid for his mother's funeral. His often delayed Dictionary of the English Language and deluxe edition of Shakespeare were subsidized through promotional mailers, prompting one wag to complain: Tough and indepenent, Johnson was justifiably proud of his accomplishments.

As he informed the arrogant Lord Chesterfield, who had presumed to take credit for his work: Son of a master cutler, Diderot was the greatest polymath of the Enlightenment. A popular wit and salonist, Denis first limited himself to amusing bagatelles and satires, but his formidable gifts as a scholar asserted themselves when he was commissioned to translate an English encyclopedia. Dissatisfied with the results, he decided to create his own. With the help of the mathematician D'Alembert, he began his magnus opus: The project took 25 years to complete and was financed by four thousand subscribers. Like Voltaire, Diderot championed the free market but was more skeptical about the benefits of commercial society.

Appropriately, modern psychologists and marketing analysts call the compulsion to upgrade and overspend the Diderot effect. More than the father of economics, Smith was a rhetorician, ethicist, and political scientist, who early saw the costs and benefits of commercial civilization. PTW teachers and scholars admire his insights into technology and society and his ideas about liberal professional education. These varied occupations present an almost infinite variety of objects to the contemplation of those few, who, being attached to no particular occupation themselves, have leisure and inclination to examine the occupations of other people.

The contemplation of so great a variety of [professions] necessarily exercises their minds in endless comparisons and combinations, and renders their understandings, in an extraordinary degree, both acute and comprehensive. Central to Smith's concept of the free market, therefore, are intellectual capital and informed persuasion. Words as well as money are means of exchange. As he explains in his Lectures on Jurisprudence Men in the marketplace always endeavor to persuade others to be of their opinion, even when the matter is of no consequence to them.

And in this matter all of us practice oratory on each other thro the whole of our lives.


Despite heavy tax penatlies, the remaining profits allowed Pope to move to a villa at Twickenham, where he created a famous grotto and gardens.

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Swift perceived long before most that science was ethically and morally neutral ithacs could be used for evil as easily as good. But political activism and restless curiosity Pohne seduced him from his concerns and bankrupted him. Retiring at forty, he devoted the rest of his life to science, politics, and diplomacy. Forever in debt, he wrote for and about the new market economy. Both men were politicians Addison an undersecretary of state, Steele an MPbut they were also pundits and arbiters of taste. Needless to say, subsequent events proved him right.