Indian escorts in santa fe
In other words, instead of guarding the Trail, as the later military posts did, the military escorts guarded only the trade caravans which they accompanied. Spring, -- Captain Philip St. George Indian escorts in santa fe and four companies of First Dragoons, 5. Autumn, -- Captain Cooke and six companies of First Dragoons, and 6. Nevertheless, it was relatively peaceful along the route until In that year the large number of traders who journeyed to Santa Fe experienced frequent Indian attacks and sustained heavy losses.
These Indian outrages led to demands by the traders, Missouri Governor John Miller, and the Missouri legislature for the federal government to furnish military protection for the Santa Fe trade. It appeared Indian escorts in santa fe the traders would receive no escorts, and many of them, reflecting upon the losses of the previous year, were unwilling to take the risks without some protection from the Indians. It seemed that the recently established Santa Fe trade might be terminated; however, some of those who had profited most were determined that the Indians would not close the Trail. A small group of leading proprietors, including Samuel C. Lamme and David Waldo, sent a direct appeal to the newly inaugurated Indian escorts in santa fe, Andrew Jackson, for military escort for the caravans as far as the boundary between the United States and Mexico.
Louis to escort the caravan. They doubted the effectiveness of infantry the United States Army had no cavalry in in dealing with mounted Indians. Only one-fourth as many proprietors and men made the journey in as had gone the previous year. This post had been founded in as part of the defense line along the Missouri River. Besides Major Riley, there were ten officers and about two hundred men in the battalion. It was finally decided to experiment with oxen cheaper than horses or mules by about three to onewhich had never been used for draft purposes on the Great Plains. Thus, the first military escort introduced these animals Indian escorts in santa fe the Trail. Moreover, after the caravan had reached the Arkansas crossing, the captain, Charles Bent, Free casual dating in raleigh nc 27635 one yoke of oxen and used them the rest of the way to Santa Fe.
Bent was Date annonce parcours tour de france 2015 rodovre with their performance, even though on the return trip from Santa Fe the oxen strayed and were lost. The experiment proving successful, oxen became a regular sight on the Trail, although they never entirely replaced mules. By the time of the Mexican War, approximately half the draft animals used on the Trail were oxen, and, after the war, with army freighting and developing commercial freighting companies, oxen became the most frequently used means of locomotion. If the first escort did nothing more, it made a significant contribution by proving the efficiency of oxen on the plains.
The troops and the caravan arrived at Council Grove on June 18 and departed two Indian escorts in santa fe later. The traders had delayed crossing the river until reaching the westernmost route Indian escorts in santa fe the Cimarron in order to have the protection of the escort as far as possible. From Council Grove to Chouteau's Island, a march of twenty days, Indian signs appeared occasionally and six horses were lost, supposedly by Indian theft, but no direct contact occurred with the Indians of the region. As intended, the Indians apparently were overawed by the presence of the troops. The caravan crossed the Arkansas on July 10 and departed without the escort the following day. The traders hoped that Indian escorts in santa fe would accompany them into Mexican territory, but, as Cooke later reported, "Our orders were to march no farther; and as a protection to the trade, it was like the establishment of a ferry to the mid-channel of a river.
Pointing out that Indian escorts in santa fe trade was important to Mexico Indian escorts in santa fe well as the United States, Riley asked the Mexican government to provide an escort for the caravan's return to the Arkansas in the autumn. Indian escorts in santa fe traders had estimated their return date at some time between October 5 and 10, so it appeared Indian escorts in santa fe the troops would have about three months of buffalo hunting and relaxation. However, the sojourn on the Arkansas proved to be much more taxing and dangerous than the long march to Chouteau's Island or the return march to Fort Leavenworth in the autumn. Before the first afternoon of welcome Indian escorts in santa fe for the tired Indian escorts in santa fe had passed, a small party of traders rode hurriedly into their camp and announced that the caravan had been attacked in the sand hills about six miles south of the river, and that one of the proprietors, Samuel C.
Lamme, had been killed. The frightened traders requested Riley and his troops to come to their aid, and, although it meant taking United States soldiers into Mexican territory, Riley did not delay. He led his command across the river and proceeded to the besieged caravan. Arriving at the train during the night and establishing a suitable guard, the soldiers witnessed the withdrawal of the Indians the following morning. The traders, fearing to continue without escort, begged Riley to accompany them onward. He complied, and escorted them for two days, to Drunken Creek twenty-four miles from the scene of the attackand then refused to go farther into foreign territory.
After resting in camp for one day, the troops returned to the Arkansas and remained on the Mexican side for ten days before recrossing the river and going into camp opposite Chouteau's Island. For the duration of their encampment, the soldiers moved camp when necessary for cleanliness or to find grass for the oxen or buffalo for food. They were almost constantly harassed by Indians until August 11, but the remaining two months of their stay on the Arkansas were passed practically without incident. Since they were infantry, Riley and the soldiers found it extremely frustrating not to be able to give chase to the hostile Indians.
As Riley reported, following the attack upon their camp on August 3: Think what our feelings must have been to see them going off with our cattle and horses [the officers had horses], when if we had been mounted, we could have beaten them to pieces; but we were obliged to content ourselves with whipping them from our camp. We did not get any of the killed or wounded, but we saw the next day where they had dragged them off. They have said since that our fire from the big gun [six-pound cannon] killed five or six. Much did we regret that we were not mounted too. The command lost only four men during the entire expedition.
For defensive purposes they were effective and successful, but their experiences demonstrated the need for cavalry if they were ever to take the offense against the Indians. This lesson apparently had its effect, because the next escort was comprised of United States Mounted Rangers. From August 11 to October 11 the soldiers were busy preparing the wagons and carts for the return trip, standing guard, and obtaining their meat rations from the abundant buffalo herds. In addition to supplying their current needs for food, they were able to garner thirty-two days' provisions of dried buffalo meat for the return march.
Major Riley had agreed, at the time of the traders' departure, to wait until October 10 for their return. When that day arrived and no caravan was in sight, he decided to remain in camp one more day. Early in the morning of October 11 the troops fired their cannon once and departed without the traders. They had not advanced far when they were overtaken by a party of riders from the caravan, who related that the train, accompanied by a command of Mexican soldiers, was only about one day's march behind them. Riley halted his command, went into camp, and sent Captain William N. Wickliffe and Lieutenant Francis J. Brooke back with a trader to escort the caravan to the camp. The traders and the Mexican troops arrived the following day.
It was learned from the traders that, after leaving Riley's force on July 14, they had been harassed by Indians for forty days as they continued toward Santa Fe. But no more traders were killed and no property was stolen. Finally, a large number of Mexican buffalo hunters had joined the caravan for its protection, and additional assistance was sent out from Taos. As the number traveling in the train increased, the Indians became less daring, allowing the traders to proceed to Taos and on to Santa Fe. At Santa Fe, the traders' account of their difficulties plus the letter of request from Major Riley led an inspector general of the Mexican Army, Colonel Joss Antonio Vizcarra, to offer the services of a mounted escort for the return trip to the Arkansas.
During their journey, the Mexican command lost three men during an Indian attack on the Cimarron River, but the traders suffered no losses. The return march was free from Indian attack, and the caravan broke up and the escort ceased at the Little Arkansas River. Marching quickly because of the approaching winter, the soldiers reached Fort Leavenworth on November 8. They were a tired and tattered bunch of men, but, as a result of their experiences, much wiser about Plains Indians and military needs for escort duty along the Santa Fe Trail. Even though the escort was limited in its military operations against the Indians because it was not mounted, certain accomplishments indicate that the expedition was a success.
It proved the efficiency of oxen on the plains. The trade caravan had experienced no Indian hostilities while under the charge of the soldiers. The command had adequately protected itself from Indian attacks while encamped on the Arkansas. A show of force at the Arkansas camp, while not completely restraining the Indians, finally taught them a healthy respect for American troops and artillery and caused them to leave the command unmolested for two months. The soldiers had subsisted upon buffalo meat and the small amount of provisions carried along. And it had been clearly demonstrated that mounted troops would be necessary to deal appropriately, especially offensively, with the hostile Indians who harassed the traders and travelers on the Trail.
The expedition also demonstrated the need for securing co-operating Mexican escorts in conjunction with any such efforts in the future. The report may have been influential in securing passage of an act, inestablishing the United States Mounted Rangers. After the successful escort venture ofSecretary of War John H. Eaton immediately began planning for future protection of the Trail. There appeared to be some thought that sending infantry again would be inadequate; at any rate, no more protection was provided until the army had a mounted force. Indian hostilities along the Trail probably helped to bring about the creation of a mounted force.
Although no lives were lost duringseveral men were killed along the route duringincluding the famous fur trader and pathfinder, Jedediah Smith. In December of that year, Senator Benton introduced a bill to provide for a command of mounted volunteers to serve in the American West. Several reports pertaining to the fur trade and the trade with Mexico, submitted to the Senate early the following year, lent support to the bill. At about the same time the troops arrived at that post, the Indians again became active along the Trail. After being under siege for nearly thirty-two hours, the survivors managed to escape during the night. Five went in a northwesterly direction and finally arrived at a Creek Indian camp near the Arkansas River, where they were treated hospitably.
The other five headed east; only two survived, and they did not reach a white settlement for forty-two days. By this time they were nearly starved. Secretary of War Cass decided to provide protection for the spring caravan, and since the infantry had suffered limitations in handling the Indians, Captain Duncan's company of Rangers, assisted by two officers, twenty-five privates, and one piece of field artillery from the Sixth Infantry, was selected for the escort. Captain Wickliffe, Sixth Infantry, who had served with the escort, was placed in command of the expedition.
Initially, Major Henry Dodge, commanding officer of the Mounted Rangers, had ordered Captain Duncan to proceed with the caravan to the Arkansas Crossing and remain there for its return in the autumn. However, General Henry Atkinson, commanding the Department of the West, after taking charge of provisioning the escort, changed the orders. Instead of requiring the troops to remain on the Arkansas, he instructed them to accompany the traders to the Mexican boundary and then return immediately to Fort Leavenworth. He also placed Captain Wickliffe in charge of the escort and sent the accompanying soldiers from the Sixth Infantry.
Then on May 22,he instructed Captain Wickliffe to take his unit to Round Grove and join the caravan. The total command was made up of officers and men, five supply wagons, and the piece of field artillery and its accompanying ammunition wagon.
Spring, -- Captain Philip St. The traders, fearing to continue without escort, begged Riley to accompany them onward.
Santa Fe Escorts in Albuquerque (6)
However, the sojourn on the Arkansas proved to be much more taxing fs dangerous Indian escorts in santa fe the long march to Chouteau's Island or the return march to Fort Leavenworth in the autumn. Secretary of War Cass decided to provide protection for the spring caravan, and since the infantry had suffered limitations in handling the Indians, Captain Duncan's company of Rangers, assisted by two officers, twenty-five privates, and one piece of field artillery from the Sixth Infantry, was selected for the escort. By the time of the Mexican War, approximately half the draft animals used on the Trail were oxen, and, after the war, with army freighting and developing commercial freighting companies, oxen became the most frequently used means of locomotion.
In other words, instead of guarding the Trail, as the later military posts did, the military escorts guarded only the trade caravans which they accompanied.