How to look sexy to women in eitzen

The Power and Joy of Derby: In what ways do sports make a difference in the lives of the people who play them? In this paper, we employ a sporting feminist perspective to answer this question and detail how women benefit from the sport of roller derby. In the end, this work comments on the multiple examples of feminist expression and positive sporting participation found in derby, including the use of sport to reject notions of weakness and fragility, and a greater willingness to critically assess gender inequities beyond the world of sport. However, the derby of today is not the derby of yesteryear. By the late 30s, the game evolved into a physical competition between the two teams.

In that iteration, derby was coeducational, with women and men playing on each team. Further, the derby of that era was also professional—skaters were paid, and promoters, managers, owners, and others earned money from their involvement. In time, derby was transformed into a full-contact event, which almost always was also a staged spectacle. However, after several organizational meetings and a disputed fundraiser, he and the derby athletes parted ways. The women then self-organized as an amateur, women-only game, played on accessible flat surfaces where a track could be laid out with a simple roll of rope and tape venues have ranged from roller rinks to hockey arenas, sports halls, auditoriums, convention centers, and parking lots.

This new incarnation has since attracted the attention of women across the US and, increasingly, the world. In contemporary derby, amateur skaters play a full-contact sport, necessitating in addition to quad roller skates the use of helmets, mouth guards, and elbow- wrist- and kneepads. In this context, derby names are often humorous, involving pseudonyms made up of How to look sexy to women in eitzen, wordplay, cultural references, or inside jokes among players—though a growing number of skaters are choosing to skate under their real name Breeze ; Paul and Blank Athletes skate counterclockwise around an oval track, slightly smaller in circumference than a basketball court. After her first, non-scoring pass through the opposing team, the leading jammer also has the strategic option of ending the jam prematurely by tapping her hands to her hips.

The other eight players skate in a pack and make judicious use of their bodies specifically hips and shoulders to clear space for their jammer and stymie her opposite number. Players are allowed to hit each other, hard, in shoulder-to-shoulder and hip-to-hip blocks. Finally, all participants in a derby event Stripper group nude volunteers, including the players themselves, the announcers, scorekeepers, and skating referees. Feminist Approaches to the Study of Sport Sport in the United States has often been conceptualized as a male preserve—one in which women as athletes remain largely invisible Cahn ; Messner, Duncan and Willms ; Cooky and Lavoi ; Antunovic and Hardin As Sarah Wolter3 writes, The premise of this [line of scholarship] is that sport has historically been considered a masculine endeavor … [and] when women participate in sport and challenge hegemonic masculinity, they are often met with resistance.

To this end, a feminist perspective is ultimately necessary to contest the ways by which sport promotes and privileges male dominance. Feminist researchers have been drawn to this sporting scene for a number of reasons. First, roller derby has generally been understood to represent some sort of challenge to mainstream i. For example, Nancy J. Finley—61 writes: As previously noted, women are How to look sexy to women in eitzen marginalized within sport hierarchies. But derby is a place where female participants are able to create and control the formal structures of access and play. The majority of leagues are owned and operated by the participants….

This is significant because sport organizations have historically been controlled by men. Even as female athletic participation rates skyrocketed in the United States since the passage of Title IX, women continue to be underrepresented in leadership positions within sports organizations. As a sport created by and for women, roller derby is an interesting case because it provides an alternative Free lonely wives in kiev male-dominated sport. Indeed, roller derby not only opens up access to positions of power for women who may lack the professional credentials or experience required to run existing sport organizations—but at the same time, each member has How to look sexy to women in eitzen voice and a say in how her sport is organized.

Researchers have found derby to be a unique venue in which women find liberation from the limitations of traditional femininity and challenge the notion that physical strength, competition, and aggressiveness are unfeminine attributes Breeze ; Carlson ; Cotterill ; Finley ; Peluso ; Kearney ; Murray ; Newsom It is an understanding that power may be lived and resisted through the body Grosz For example, Andrea Eklund and Barbara A. But it is also a love business Pavlidis The degree of commitment that participants give to the sport suggests that derby is an especially vital resource in shaping the overall identities of the women who play.

In this way, derby helps to question masculine ideologies that promote said restrictions of broader sport inclusion and play. Fourth and last, derby also appears to provide a space for women who have previously been resistant to team sports Mabe ; Storms Indeed, derby provides opportunities for women with diverse body sizes, in particular women with larger builds, to excel. As a sport akin to football or rugby, derby requires bodies both large and small, and overall participation seems to encourage an acceptance of a variety of body sizes and types Cotterill ; Eklund and Masberg Given the increasing popularity of derby and the growing feminist literature on the sport, we conducted our project to see if our observations mirror or depart from the literature in significant ways.

But beyond this, we are simply interested in the stories that derby players tell. Methodology This study used multiple methods, including naturalistic observation and in-depth interviews, to study roller derby athletes of a regional midwestern team. All observations and interviews were held in two neighboring midwestern US metropolitan cities from May to November Personal Reflexive Statements We came to this study from a variety of activities and necessities. Blank, an anthropologist, was teaching Introduction to Cultural Anthropology and had assigned her students a number of cultural investigations and ethnographic reports to complete. In the process of grading these reports, she discovered that several of her students had participated in a local roller derby league.

She became intrigued by the ways in which her female students described player rituals and the broader cultural and gendered frameworks of the sport. Paul had recently been asked to develop and teach a course in the sociology of sport. Knowing little about the subfield, he suggested that they do a collaborative project as a way to grow their collective expertise in the field of sport and further explore the unique cultural world of derby from shared anthropological and sociological perspectives. This article is the result of that collaboration. Naturalistic Observations and Rapport Building We made our initial entry into the field after gaining permission from the team captain and the rink owner to come to the arena and observe.

Observing athletes in practice and game settings provided rich data about the nature of game play, team cohesion, and athlete-fan interactions. We spent seven months with the team at practice and games, for a total of 50 hours of direct observation. We remained fairly unobtrusive and our vocalizations were simple, yet heartfelt, encouraging remarks for their hard work, physical expenditures, and team play. We attempted to craft a supportive presence, for we knew that these initial impressions would be crucial to the success of the research project. Following these initial periods of hanging out and observing, we strategized that Dr. Blank, a woman, should be the first to approach and initiate contact with the derby athletes with the belief that her gender would positively influence access and rapport in the field.

In the end, this seemed to be a successful strategy, as the derby athletes were more open to speaking with Dr. Blank and many saw her as both a confidant and a potential derby recruit. In-Depth Interviews In addition to observations, we also conducted in-depth semistructured interviews with approximately a third of the players on the team. Interviewees were recruited through a variety of techniques. First, after rapport had been established by attending practices and derby bouts, we simply reached out to athletes who seemed most receptive to us selecting persons that greeted us, spoke to us, or acknowledged us in some way.

Next, using snowball sampling, we asked these athletes to recommend other players to be interviewed. In some cases, based on these recommendations, we used Facebook to contact athletes and ask if we could interview them at a time and place most convenient to their schedules. All interviews were face to face and lasted between one hour and two and a half hours, with the average interview being approximately one hour and 30 minutes long. All interviews were digitally recorded and later transcribed.

Each participant was assigned a pseudonym in many cases, their derby name to preserve confidentiality. In total, seven in-depth interviews were conducted with derby athletes. An additional in-depth interview was held with a rink owner, and multiple informative conversations were held with several non-skating officials and referees. During the time of our study, team membership was approximately 24 individuals. Further, the team also lost several players due to attrition and injury during the season. The majority of the women were in their mid-twenties and early thirties—though the full age range of our participants included women in their early twenties to late forties.

Beyond this, the women were also fairly homogenous regarding ethnicity and social-class position—all identified as Caucasian and all were from working- or lower-middle-class families. Finally, we also supplemented our hours of observation and interviews with the reading of published materials, online blogs, and Web pages associated with the sport of derby. Data Collection and Analysis Qualitative data analysis occurred concurrently with data collection. While we did not approach interviews with specific hypotheses, we did employ guiding, open-ended questions.

For example, the first author, a sociologist, was interested in themes of organization rules, structure of game play and motifs of athletic identity. In conducting the interviews, we sought to prompt the participants to speak from their unique perspective by providing narrative accounts of their experience with the team and in the sport of derby itself. This included asking interviewees how they came to be on the team, what they liked and disliked about being on the team, what was involved in playing the game, and what their overall athletic experiences were like. When participants raised experiences or ideas that might clarify or scrutinize an emerging theme in the ongoing data analysis, the interview explored those further.

Throughout the interviews, we drew heavily from grounded theory research Strauss and Corbin, continually modifying our questions based on field observations and experiences with our interviewees. All interviews were recorded digitally and transcribed, and we each reviewed the transcripts separately to identify text segments that appeared meaningful in addressing the research questions. After this, we discussed our impressions of the interview data together and worked to gain consensus on text segments containing meaningful content for the creation of a coding system.

That is to say, we looked for statements of similar expression and content to be grouped together for eventual coding. Out of this process, we identified the following themes for coding: Using this coding system, the data was then weaved together to highlight key ideas and summarize the shared perspectives of the participants. As themes emerged, we linked various feminist and social scientific theoretical concepts to help explain and analyze the data. Findings Before we explore the benefits of participation in the sport of derby, we first describe some of the general characteristics of the athletes. Generally, because of the physical stamina and strength necessary to play roller derby, most skaters are young adults in their early twenties to early thirties though several women on the team were in their mid- to late forties.

Further, due to the general ethnic and socioeconomic composition of the community in which the team plays, the overwhelming majority of athletes are white and working or lower middle class. However, beyond these attributes, skaters are considerably diverse when it comes to sexuality, body type, and political and cultural affiliations. Some women wanted to play because it was a continuation of an athletic identity and a resumed chance for athletic expression. Others played because they were denied the chance to play organized team sports when they were younger. Regardless of their motivations to play, however, we did discover strong patterns related to the positive elements of their participation in derby—including the joy of physicality, a celebration of teamwork, and the pleasures of performativity.

We now turn to a broader examination of these themes. The Body Subcategory 1A:




I think derby is great ritzen it allows for a diverse set of women and body types, and I get to skate in front of an audience and show them that I am still active, powerful … and yes, alluring [laughs]. We remained fairly unobtrusive and our vocalizations were simple, yet heartfelt, encouraging remarks for their hard work, physical expenditures, and team play. This means that they must identify venues in which to play, raise their own funds, sell their own tickets, recruit fans, and stir excitement among onlookers. Selling to the Crowd Subcategory 3A: Male Reason versus Female Empowerment. We spent seven months with the team at practice and games, for a total of 50 hours of direct observation.